COVID-19

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which may cause illness in animals or humans.  In humans, several coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The most recently discovered coronavirus causes coronavirus disease COVID-19.

COVID-19 is the infectious disease caused by the most recently discovered coronavirus. This new virus and disease were unknown before the outbreak began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.

The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, tiredness, and dry cough. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but don’t develop any symptoms and don't feel unwell. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing special treatment. Around 1 out of every 6 people who gets COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing. Older people, and those with underlying medical problems like high blood pressure, heart problems or diabetes, are more likely to develop serious illness. People with fever, cough and difficulty breathing should seek medical attention.

The main way the disease spreads is through respiratory droplets expelled by someone who is coughing. Studies to date suggest that the virus that causes COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through contact with respiratory droplets rather than through the air. 

The “incubation period” means the time between catching the virus and beginning to have symptoms of the disease. Most estimates of the incubation period for COVID-19 range from 1-14 days, most commonly around five days.

DETECTION OF 2019 NOVEL CORONAVIRUS(2019-nCoV) BY REAL TIME RT-PCR 

Real-time RT-PCR is widely deployed in diagnostic virology. In the case of a public health emergency, proficient diagnostic laboratories can rely on this robust technology to establish new diagnostic tests within their routine services before pre-formulated assays become available.A viral genome sequence was released for immediate public health support via the community online resource virological.org on 10 January (Wuhan-Hu-1, GenBank accession number MN908947 ), followed by four other genomes deposited on 12 January in the viral sequence database curated by the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). The genome sequences suggest the presence of a virus closely related to the members of a viral species termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related CoV, a species defined by the agent of the 2002/03 outbreak of SARS in humans. The species also comprises a large number of viruses mostly detected in rhinolophid bats in Asia and Europe.

WHAT TESTS ARE AVAILABLE?

On February 4, 2020, FDA authorized emergency use of the CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel. The first EOI for developers of in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) that detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid (molecular assays).A second call for test developers interested in having their immunoassays (manual ELISA, machine-based or lateral flow, rapid tests specific for SARS-CoV-2 antigen or antibodies)

Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection among health care workers in a health care setting

www.who.int › docs › 20200205-hcw-protocol-2019-ncov-v1-2

Global surveillance for COVID-19 caused by human infection with COVID-19 virus https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novelcoronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/surveillance-and-case-definitions

 

Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected

https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1272420/retrieve

THERAPEUTICS

There are no FDA-approved therapeutics (drugs) to treat COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.On March 28, 2020, FDA issued an EUA to allow hydroxychloroquine sulfate and chloroquine phosphate products  donated to the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) to be distributed and used for certain hospitalized patients with COVID-19. There are no FDA-approved vaccines to prevent COVID-19 or other coronaviruses.On March 24, 2020, the FDA issued information for healthcare providers about convalescent plasma—plasma collected from the blood of fully recovered COVID-19 patients and given as treatment to very ill COVID-19 patients: Investigational COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma - Emergency INDs.

Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) when COVID-19 disease is suspected. 

https://apps.who.int/iris/rest/bitstreams/1272156/retrieve

PROTECTIVE MEASURES

Everyone Should Clean your hands often

  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds especially after you have been in a public place, or after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing.
  • If soap and water are not readily available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they feel dry.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands.

Cover your mouth and nose with a cloth face cover when around others

  • Everyone should wear a cloth face cover when they have to go out in public, for example to the grocery store or to pick up other necessities.

Cover coughs and sneezes

  • If you are in a private setting and do not have on your cloth face covering, remember to always cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze or use the inside of your elbow.

Clean and disinfect

  • Clean AND disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily. This includes tables, doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks.

CONCLUSION

With the world on lockdown and dealing with a global pandemic, there is a substantial need for some motivation to move forward even if it is in small quantities.It’s a very common feeling to feel overpowered and frightened by all the waves of coronavirus news(COVID-19) at this moment.Regardless of the present conditions, a few people have chosen to benefit as much as possible by discovering approaches to remain engaged, instructed and satisfied, both physically and intellectually.May the Almighty continue to bless you and protect you,stay safe take care. 

Author:

Dr. DINESH.Y

BDS

Field of interest- Digital pathology, Dental genetics

REFERENCES

  1. World Health Organization (WHO).:https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus

https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

2.https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html

3.GISAID,  https://www.gisaid.org/

4.Virological,  http://virological.org/

5.https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/counterterrorism-and-emerging-threats/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19

6.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988269/

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