Ramanujan’s Musings: A Journey With Fractal Genomics


By: Dr M V Ramanujan, Founder and CEO Propinquity Genomics and Sciences Bangalore India

“Om. Acharya poorva roopam; Anteyvas uttara roopam; Vidya sandhi; Pravachanam sandhanam” – Shikshavalli, Taitiriya Upanishad

Om: Teacher is like a first syllable; Student is like a second syllable; Education is like the join of the two syllables; Guidance is like the grammar that allows the join of two syllables to evolve a meaningful word

In 1980 I read a book by Benjamin Lewin on Genes and was attracted towards practising genetics since the age of 15. In 1982, I joined a Biochemistry undergraduate degree program at PSG College of Arts and Science in the sleepy town of Coimbatore and pursued MSc there until 1987. 

I received an invitation from Dr Glenn Kuehn of New Mexico State University to join PhD in chemistry in the United States, doing a Biochemistry Major. I travelled to the USA at the age of 22. I switched to Molecular Biology MS. Then I moved to the University of Kansas for Molecular Genetics and later left to join a start-up Biotech company in Columbia NY. In 1987, I got trained by Prof Hageman’s lab by adenylate energy charge fame Dr Daniel Atkinson. He was trained by Dr Paul D Boyer. That was my enzymology or microbial physiology or protein degradation grounding. After some difficulty in 1990, I found a biochemist in the Midwest who was from Sydney Altman’s lab. I started on ribozymes, Nucleic acid enzymology.

In Germany, I got trained by a biochemist, a catalytic RNA specialist. In Japan, I learnt ribozymes and fast kinetics in Kazunari Taira, a high-profile lab. He was a Tokyo University professor. My grounding in RNA Chemistry and Biology was so immaculate with these stalwarts that I practice RNA Biology even today, at the age of 58 

Now cut to the chase. Russian biologist Nikolai Timofeev interpreted Delbruck’s experiments on mutation.

Schroedinger was against Copenhagen’s interpretations. and supported by Max Born. Max worked at Bangalore Indian Institute of Sciences (Tata Institute(IISc)) when Dr CV Raman was the Director. Lord Rutherford did not like Bangalore Institute politics; Max Born came back. It was Bohm who supported John von Neumann but sadly Bell’s inequality experiments proved he was otherwise. It is clear CV Raman wanted to get Schroedinger to Bangalore. But Lord Rutherford warned. The point is Benoit may have resisted math seeing a field like an Enzyme cybernetics coming up in Paris’s Pajomo.

Coming to JBS Haldane, a British citizen, relinquished his citizenship and taught at Indian Statistical Institute in Kolkata, and later in Bhubaneswar setting an example of how science is borderless. Prof Peter Medawar who is a Nobel Laureate praised him as the cleverest man in the world. Peter Medawar, a staunch supporter of Karl Popper’s theories in philosophy, definitely found a force in JBS Haldane who was a world-renowned biologist. I cannot hesitate to point out the contributions of JC Bose as a biologist, and physics researcher in Botany, and who made a phenomenal contribution and an FRS. 

There is a reason why whiners and Norbert Wiener’s cybernetics was well-embraced as Russians confirmed. After Vienna’s return, and after Russia’s aggression by Stalin in Hungary, Schroedinger seems very much feared. But why was Von Neuman put down by mathematician Bell and proved Copenhagen nicely by the Niels Bohr team and Max born, who was taken to task by Schroedinger? But Bell’s experiments prove Von Neumann was not at all correct and also Bohm. The mathematization of biology was advanced by Rene Descartes in Leiden (1692).

However, in Dublin, Erwin Shroedinger gave What is Life-based on the green pamphlet Max Delbruck. Incidentally, if you read “Mind and Matter”, it cites Indian Upanishads. Max Mueller also gave a treatise on the philosophy of India.


The mathematization of biology was advanced by Rene Descartes in Leiden in 1629. However, in Dublin, Erwin Schrodinger gave a What is Life lecture based on a green pamphlet by Max Delbruck. Incidentally, if you read Mind and Matter it cites Indian Upanishads. Max Mueller also gave a treatise on the philosophy of India. Russian Biologics knew cybernetics and worked with Delbruck and Schroedinger. Math and biology are intertwined in today’s world giving a twist to team Pajomo and Messelson in the USA. Math in biology is ubiquitous, and Benoit Mandelbrot deserved attention very early. In the fractal world, genomics is vividly interwoven. The point is that biology with math has rich ancestry.

It took many years to recognize the contributions of Benoit Mandelbrot. in one’s 80s and likewise my collaborators’ questions on twin axioms- one Francis Crick’s forward loop of DNA makes RNA makes protein and Susumu Ohno’s junk DNA. Having worked 60 years in science and Fractal Biology is left unrecognised still today, having hundreds of publications and patents to his name. Dr Andras Pellionisz and his collaborator Dr JC Perez who advanced fractal genomics and Fractal cancer are yet to be recognised for their mind-boggling contributions Perez considers. In France, a pioneer of biomathematics, Pierre Gavaudane was inspired by his work on atomic masses and genetic code. He was also a professor at Poitiers University. Luc Montagnier, the 2008 Nobel Winner, therefore, opted for registration at the same time at the medical school and the faculty of sciences of tiers. He wanted to become a researcher in human biology. 

In the morning, he was in the hospital and in the afternoon, he took courses in botany, zoology and geology. It was then he met Pierre Gavaudan, a very atypical professor of botany. The scientific interests of the latter went far beyond the classification of plants. Indeed, it opened a large window to him that was the beginning of a new Biology, namely, the double helix DNA, the in vitro synthesis of proteins by ribosomes and the culture of viruses.

In 1972, Jacques Monod, then director of the Institut Pasteur, asked him to create a research unit in the new Department of Virology. The goal is to be able to detect viruses involved in human cancers. In 1975, two other researchers joined his research unit. They are Jean-Claude Chermann and his collaborator, Françoise arré-Sinoussi. The latter bring their expertise in murine retroviruses. In 1982, he became involved in AIDS research when he learned that a transmissible agent — possibly a virus — could be the cause of this mysterious new disease. Hard work ensues. In September 1983, he was able to make a synthetic presentation of all his data, at Cold Spring Harbor, in favour of a causal link between the virus and the disease.

This presentation was initially greeted with scepticism by a small audience, including Robert Gallo, the conference’s co-organizer. But, in 1985, this one confirms the results of the Montagnier team. The rest of the story was widely commented on in the press, after the awarding of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2008.

I am in collaboration with Dr Andras Pellionisz from J. Szentogothai’s lab and Dr Jean Claude Perez, a collaborator with Prof Luc Montagnier. I have known them for the past 12 years and have known them since their proven fractal defects cause fractal cancer, and Genome misregulation disease cancer is curable by precision medicine. Fractal defects can be neutralised. Statistical diagnosis, probabilistic prognosis and precision medicine are possible in a hospital system-calibrated industrialisation of genomics. It is well proven beyond doubt today that their inventions will have to meet the customer as soon as possible. We hope that day is near here.

I have been their collaborator for the past 12 years and have known them since their proven fractal defects cause fractal cancer, and Genome misregulation disease cancer is curable by precision medicine. Fractal defects can be neutralised, and Statistical diagnosis, probabilistic prognosis and precision medicine are possible in a hospital system-calibrated industrialisation of genomics.

It is well proven beyond doubt today that their inventions should meet the customer as soon as possible. We hope that day is near here.

The Fractal, self-similar representation of both Clouds and snowflakes are reminiscent of what we will find in Purkinje cells and Lungs. Humans are Mutifractal with symmetry.

Dr Jean Claude Perez, a Giant in this area, of Fractal analysis, and Fractal geometry, an IBM professor of Computing, a dedicated disciple of Benoit Mandelbrot, and collaborated with mRNA co-discoverer Francois and HTLV- 1 discoverer Nobel winner Luc Montagnier goes back to decades of work, done by giants in the mathematics, computation and astrobiology, astronomy to demonstrate how Fibonacci numbers, the key aesthetic of the nautilus, pineapple or pine cones, structured the DNA sequences of genes or small genomes such as mitochondrial DNA

Research by Dr Perez in 1997 was a kind of “scientific aesthetic sense”. Ancient Indians determined the value of the Pi and Golden ratio, as almost too good, and the distance between the sun and earth was almost approximately correct. Too good to believe, these days science buffs. However, Dr Perez has given seminal contributions for which International Recognition in Life Sciences deserves the nomination Perez was looking for a smaller common denominator for DNA and amino acids; we have the intuition of the need for 3 ingredients – 

  1. The atomic mass and the bio atoms CONHS P are common to these three languages.
  2. The two universal constants PI and Phi could play a role. 
  3. Finally, Dr Perez envisioned a kind of digital projection

(such as those of the cosine or the sine in geometry) which would

constitute a kind of “shadow” projecting on the 2D horizontal plane the image of a kind of complex“meta-code” common to these 3 languages.

Then Dr Perez discovered and published six “Russiandoll- like” embedded CODES:

1. Atomic mass code. 

2. Master code.

3. Binary code. 

4. Undulatory code. 

5. Cytogenetic code.

6. Standing waves meta-code.

The first background code is the atomic mass code. In particular, generated from this code, Dr Perez demonstrated the existence of the digital meta code common to the three languages of biology which are RNA, DNA and amino acid sequences. Through this meta-code, genomic and proteomic images appear almost analogous and correlated. The analysis of the textures of these images then reveals a binary code as well as a code whose analysis of the human genome makes it possible to predict the alternating bands constituting the karyotypes of the chromosomes.

I interacted with Dr Andras J Pellionisz for the past 12 years and found his fractal approach enthralling and mind-boggling. India should embrace the fractal approach and his questioning of double axioms, mistaken ones into account and Usher a new era in Genomics and Genome Informatics.

András Pellionisz is a Hungarian American cross-disciplinary biophysicist. Having won competitions in physics and mathematics and the National Championship in Physics faced the trilemma of entering Budapest University of Medicine, Technology or Physics. Graduated in Engineering, put his skills in biophysics in Semmel- weis

University Medical School (joining the Szentágothai Lab). He holds triple doctorates; in Computer Engineering, Biology and later Physics. Started his USA career with an invitation to Stanford. Later accepted Professorship to New York University (1976-1992), a member of the New York Academy.

Pioneered the paradigm shift from AI to Neural Nets, as Founder of the International Neural Network Society. His Tensor Network theory explaining the coordinator function of cerebellar neural nets was awarded the Humboldt Prize for Senior Distinguished American Scientists by Germany (1990), an MIT book “Neurocomputing” and his first patent, used by NASA and US government defence technology. His second paradigm shi was the Internet from a government project explored- ing to a global industry (1994-2000). In Silicon Valley of California served as chief so ware architect at NASA and private companies, including Ernst & Young.

With the advent of genomics, based on his decades of experience with cerebellar neural nets, he never believed the twin axioms of “Junk DNA” and “Central Dogma”.

Instead, discovered FractoGene in 2002, the biophysics- cal utility of understanding the growth of fractal organisms governed by the fractal genome. From the same year when LeRoy Hood declared that genomics became informatics, he pioneered a third paradigm, Founder of the International HoloGenomics Society, he held its Inaugural in Budapest in 2006 as the new science of genome informatics he proposed suitable for Hungary. Later the US ENCODE concluded likewise; rest in 2007, when he published “The Principle of Recursive Genome Function” (2008). Based on sound genome informatics, his work sets forth new mathematical principles for proceeding with the interpretation of the whole genome. Dr Pellionisz’s fractal approach to genome function is now corroborated by recently published findings about the fractal folding of DNA structure by Presidential Science Adviser Eric Lander (2009).

Dr Pellionisz founded HolGenTech, Inc. (2010) as a Genome Analytics company in Silicon Valley of California to leverage defence-validated high-performance hybrid computer hardware with a novel, fractal algorithm-based approach for genome analysis and recommendation. He serves Academia through Foundership of Societies, Editorships, Visiting Professorship Worldwide and 150+ publications. A recent entry is a Springer Textbook, subtitled “Geometric Uni cation of Neuroscience and Genomics” (2012). 

Dr Pellionisz spearheads the industry with HolGenTech and by serving on the Board of Informatics companies in the USA, and India. Global competition heated up recently when ENCODE finally gave up on half-a-century dogmas in Sept. 2012, with industrial players in genome informatics escalating to the scale of SAMSUNG and SIEMENS. Recently, in India, Dr Pellionisz deployed his new FractoGene US patent 8,280,641 to outsourced software development for genome-based pharma testing and development, combined with also outsourced clinical trials, to gain their secured access to US markets.

Dr Andras Writes about his boss Dr János Szentágothai (Sz. J) whom he cherished abundantly quoting from the many languages. He eloquently spoke. The Latin hexameter, “the times move on, and we too move along in them”, certainly applied to his co-authoring of the above-titled book; one of the two books that defined my life, along with John von Neuman’s “The Computer and the Brain”. The “Neuronal Machine” was what these days we call “an encyclopedia” – and Sz.J. along with co-authors Sir John, Masao Ito did not shy away to move on with an astounding admission literally on the last page of the corrected proof Sz.J. gave me (at that time more practical than buying the book in dollars, and now with his hand-written dedication esteemed beyond anything money can buy). The Computer and the Brain – also on its last page – admitted that the mathematical language of brain function was unknown; defining an ample general agenda for my lifetime and beyond. The Cerebellum as a Neural Machine specified the challenge by its confession that beyond all the so-well-known cogwheels of the functional anatomy and physiology, how the “machine”, beyond “working” actually produced sensorimotor space-time coordination was out of reach for the authors, and Sz.J. had to move on to a “cybernetic” or whatever to make mathematical sense of the beloved “neural machinery”. I was captivated by the curiosity of the true scientist who not only admitted his boundaries but in a rare un- selfish manner wanted to move beyond them, rather than follow the “turf war” instincts of lesser minds. I was hired. So many decades later have arrived at the geometric unification of neuroscience and genomics.

Ever since my first day as a scientist admit- ted to the Szntagothai J. school I use his measure of a true thinker; to recognize no boundaries, let alone “turfs”. My late friend Ed Teller was like-minded; changing history with his physics he told me “The 20th Century was that of Physics – the 21st will be that of Biology”.

The Szentágotai School carried the long legacy of Lenhossék, Hőgyes, and Bárány – and connected their seminal notions of neurons, and vestibulo-ocular reflex arcs to go beyond them. He turned the disadvantages of history to find a way to benefit from them. His School flourished in Hungary in part because so few could tunnel the Iron Curtain. Those who stayed did remarkably well – not one of them even became cabinet members of modern Hungary.

Szentagothai.J. as the Chairman of the Hungarian Academy of Science had to be cautious about linking parts of his school within and beyond the limit of borders; now he would probably lead a worldwide network of leading minds of Hungary.

“As times move on, we too have to move along”. One wonders how his free spirit would induce with changed times some timely changes today. Globally, I am most curious at this juncture how Sz. J as a biologist would welcome genomics gone from biochemistry to informatics!

I came across Dr Jean Claude Perez a few years back, introduced by Dr Andras Pellionisz, who mastered mathematical Genomics. He taught me a few tricks in his research work on the Golden ratio and his associations with Nobel Winner Dr Luc Montagnier. Later I was introduced to Dr Sergey Petakhov who was a brilliant scientist not to mention his mathematical genomics was outstanding.

Finally, my friend Prof Rajan who I was associated for 25 years in Math and Computers has had many fruitful moments with me. He is a pillar of support for me. The game is on Fractal Genomics taking shape in the 21st century and Statistical diagnosis, probabilistic prognosis, and precision medicine take shape.


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